Webinar: Population-Based Prevalence of Fetal alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Canada



The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Initiative is pleased to invite you to attend the upcoming webinar, Population-based prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Canada.

This webinar presentation concludes one of the FASD Initiative’s funded projects, led by Dr. Svetlana Popova, a senior scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) and an associate professor at the University of Toronto.

Dr. Popova will discuss the methodology and results of her study that led to the first population-based estimates of FASD prevalence among elementary school children in the Greater Toronto Area.  Dr. Popova will also be joined by Dr. Valerie Temple, diagnostic team member, during  the question and answer period.

Join us on March 27, 2018, from 1:00 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. EST to learn more.

Please note that simultaneous interpretation will be provided.

To register, please visit:


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Being a Sober Parent in a Wine Mom Culture



Over a melting ice cream sundae on our first date away from our new son, my partner and I talked about what we’d be doing if we were still drinking. A cozy-looking bar across the street might have suited our purposes. Yet years of partying had shown us that abstinence was necessary for him and best for me. So, ice cream it was.

Popular parenting culture doesn’t have much room for sober sorts like us. Jokey messages on coffee mugs and T-shirts reinforce the notion that the best cure for the demands of our children is a generous glass of chardonnay. Parents who don’t drink are not offered such a simple solution to stress.

Dr. Leena Mittal, a perinatal psychiatrist and addiction specialist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, said there is a long history of chemical management of women’s distress. Tranquilizers widely prescribed to mothers in the 1950s and ’60s were known as Mother’s Little Helper. “This sends women the message that their emotions need to be squelched and not addressed,” she said.

As the opioid crisis draws attention to the impact of addiction on families, there may be a new openness to sober parenting. More children are entering the foster care system because of the opioid epidemic. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that between 2009-14, approximately 10 percent of American children lived in homes where at least one parent had an alcohol use disorder. Dr. Mittal said women with the disorder often do not get treatment for their addiction because they fear losing custody of their children. Policy changes can encourage more women to seek help. The Family First Prevention Services Act, signed into law on February 8, 2018, provides substance abuse prevention and treatment services to parents whose children are at risk for being removed from their homes. Though data shows parents tend to drink less than nonparents, social context affects how much they consume.

“Wine has become normalized, expected and then reinforced by popular culture, social media, advertising,” said Gabrielle Glaser, author of “Her Best Kept Secret: Why Women Drink — and How They Can Regain Control.” She said that images of other people’s seemingly perfect children on social media heighten many parents’ feelings of inadequacy. “Whether they’re a celebrity’s child or it’s just somebody on your Instagram feed,” she said, “You think, what’s wrong with me?” The added stress contributes to more drinking, she said.

To read more visit: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/07/well/family/wine-moms-drinking-alcohol-sober-parenting.html

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Addressing the Public Health Concerns of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Impact of Stigma and Health Literacy


The Motherisk Saga is a Symptom of a Larger Problem in Child Protection Work




By Tammy Law, for CBC News

The Motherisk bombshell caught many of us who work in child protection off guard. For years, children were removed from their families based on flawed hair testing for drugs and alcohol at the Motherisk lab at the Hospital for Sick Children.

According to a report issued by a commission tasked with investigating the saga (full disclosure: I was outside counsel to the commission; the views expressed in this column are my own personal views and are not, in any way, the views of the commission), Motherisk test results had a “substantial impact” on the outcome of 56 cases. The process was “manifestly unfair and harmful,” according to the commission, but since many of the children have been adopted out to other families, there is no simple way to remedy the situation.

Though many of us were stunned that such an injustice could have manifested for so long, in retrospect, it should have been no surprise at all. For years, fundamental procedural protections for parents have been eroded in favour of efficiency, at the expense of fairness. When this happens, it should be no surprise to anyone that something like Motherisk could occur.

Respecting procedural safeguards

There is a major power imbalance between an impoverished parent (we know that families of low socio-economic status are hugely overrepresented in the child welfare system) and a state agency. To guard against such an imbalance, it is critical that our legal system respect the time-tested procedural safeguards developed to specifically ensure that the disadvantaged party is treated fairly.

Yet according to the Motherisk report, these safeguards were ignored. The report describes a litany of procedural injustices perpetrated on parents: parents were pressured to consent to testing; were not informed of their right to reject testing; they had adverse inferences drawn against them when they rejected testing; they were required to prove the unreliability of testing instead of the other way around; and they were refused the right to cross-examine Motherisk “experts” at summary judgment motions.

The Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees procedural fairness when the state interferes with fundamental personal rights, such as the right by parents to care for their children. Ironically enough, the issue of taking body samples (such as hair for testing) without proper consent for the purpose of criminal investigations was found to be an infringement of the Charter 20 years ago by the Supreme Court.

It is unconscionable that these protections are available to accused persons, but were never considered applicable to parents at the mercy of child protection services.

There is nothing new about the commission’s finding that many parents were explicitly or implicitly told that there would be negative consequences if they did not undergo hair testing. In fact, this type of coercive action continues to happen: parents are often given messages that if they do not consent, for example, to a finding that the child is in need of protection, that there will be negative consequences. For example, they may be prevented from bringing further motions, or — more damning in CAS work — labelled as being “uncooperative.”

One would have thought that post-Motherisk, we would want parents and children to have more procedural protections and safeguards, and yet, it looks like the opposite is happening again.

In the wake of Motherisk, children’s aid societies have continued to emphasize working with parents outside of court on a “voluntarily” basis, which might include parents giving up their children to the agency under a temporary care agreement. These agreements are usually signed without lawyers and circumvent the court, which is the only place the powers of the CAS can be kept in check.

To me, Motherisk is a symptom of a larger problem in child protection work. The Motherisk scandal came about because of the failure of the legal system to protect parents and families. Somehow, we have forgotten that the desire to do good cannot be done at the expense of rights violations.

The balance between protecting children from the risk of harm and protecting parents’ and children’s basic rights to fairness is a challenging one. It is easy to fall too heavily on the side of overriding a parent’s rights in favour of efficiency and expediency. But to ensure that something like Motherisk never happens again, it is something to which everyone involved in child welfare — lawyers, judges and caseworkers — must strive.

Tammy Law is a lawyer practicing in child protection, family and criminal law in Toronto.

Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/opinion/motherisk-child-protection-1.4559905

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March 21 FASD Webcast

Screen Shot 2018-02-28 at 1.04.31 PM

Join us for this free webcast entitled: Let’s Get Real: the FASD Prevention Conversation Adolescent Project.

“The FASD Prevention Conversation: A Shared Responsibility,” is a province wide initiative funded by the FASD Cross-Ministry Committee. The project focuses on the power of relationships by fostering brief, non-judgmental conversations to inspire change related to alcohol use during pregnancy.

The FASD Prevention Conversation originally targeted adults and was well received in Alberta communities. The Adolescent Project is bringing the key messaging to young people.

Debbie and Megan will:

  • Provide a brief overview of the intent, content and proposed delivery of “Let’s Get Real” strategies to reach youth and young adults with prevention messaging.
  • Detail new resources available for teachers, youth group leaders, and others who mentor young people and want to provide positive FASD prevention messaging.
  • Explain how local network facilitators can provide mentors with training and materials adaptable to make the program appropriate for a variety of age groups, developmental stages and settings.

This webinar will be of interest to persons directly affected by FASD and anyone else supporting persons with FASD.

Date: Wednesday, March 21, 2018
Time: 9:00 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. MST
Speakers: Megan Tucker and Debbie Collins
Register Here
Format: Presenters with PowerPoint Presentation
Cost: FREE! Please share with your networks
Q&A: You can pose questions to the speakers through the live chat functionality. Remember, the live webcasts are interactive and we encourage you to participate in the question and answer portions by typing questions for speakers in the chat window, which is located below the main video panel on the webcast page.

Debbie Collins currently facilitates “The FASD Prevention Conversation” in the Lakeland Network. She also trains mentors/advocates through The Parent and Child Assistance Program (PCAP). Debbie is a mother and a grandmother of loved ones with FASD and is passionate about prevention.

Megan Tucker is the training coordinator at the Lakeland Centre for FASD as well as a prevention conversation facilitator for the Lakeland Metis Network. Megan has been involved with the Network for almost 10 years.

Previous webcasts are available on the CSS Learning Series Website.

The FASD Learning Series helps individuals, caregivers, front-line workers and professionals learn more about FASD, and how to support persons with FASD. The educational sessions cover a broad range of topics and are accessible to all Albertans.

Alberta’s FASD 10-Year Strategic Plan outlines the government’s commitment to provide awareness and prevention of FASD, as well as assessment, diagnosis, and support for individuals with FASD and their caregivers. All services and activities are built on a foundation of stakeholder engagement.

Can DNA Changes Predict Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

awarenessmeterResearchers in Canada investigate methods using DNA methylation to identify fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the absence of obvious physical signs.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a common preventable cause of developmental disability in children. The many presentations of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder include physical abnormalities, stunted growth, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and motor, sensory, and immune system impairments. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) lies on the most severe end of the spectrum and is characterized by slow growth, distinct types of facial malformations, and problems with the central nervous system.

Most children are diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome early in life because of obvious facial deformities. However, doctors have more trouble identifying children who fall on less severe parts of the spectrum because they lack the obvious physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome. Nonetheless, the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder can be serious even when other physical problems are absent.

Because early diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a strong predictor of positive outcomes, better early-screening tools are needed to identify at-risk children. Typically, doctors rely on mothers to self-report prenatal alcohol use. But this is not always accurate and often leads to an underestimation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Until recently, very few screening tools were available to help diagnose children at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. However, a Canadian study published in Clinical Epigenetics describes a method to identify and predict fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

What Can Our DNA Tell Us About Early Exposure to Alcohol?

Researchers looked at changes in DNA to identify early exposure to alcohol. These types of changes fall into the category of epigenetics, which refers to modifications of DNA that may change how genes function without changing the DNA sequence. Specifically, DNA methylation (the addition of a methyl group to certain parts of a DNA sequence) is a useful biomarker for environmental exposure and disease.

In the current study, the DNA methylation patterns of 48 individuals (24 with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 24 without, ages 3.5-18 years) were analyzed using a test designed to measure 485,512 methylation sites across the human genome. Using information gathered from these arrays, the researchers were able to find a specific DNA methylation pattern associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

These findings represent a “stepping-stone” towards the ability to use epigenetic biomarkers for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and could potentially be developed to diagnose other developmental disorders. Since an early, reliable diagnosis increases the success of available treatments, these results are invaluable.

Written by Cindi A. Hoover, Ph.D.

Reference: Lussier AA, Morin AM, Maclsaac JL, Salmon J, Weinberg J, Reynolds JN, Pavlidis P, Chudley AE, Kobor MS. DNA methylation as a predictor of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Clinical Epigenetics; 2018, 10:5. DOI 10.1186/s13148-018-0439-6

Retrieved from: https://www.medicalnewsbulletin.com/dna-changes-predict-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder/

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Resource: Women and Alcohol

Centere of Excellence for Women’s Health


Click to visit website.

Did you know…

• Alcohol is the mostly widely used drug in Canada.It is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented.

• The use of alcohol has been traced as far back as 8000 BC.

• Although alcohol comes in different forms (e.g., beer, wine, rum, coolers), it has the same effect. Pure (ethyl) alcohol is a clear, colourless liquid.

• Alcohol is a “depressant” drug that slows down the parts of your brain that affect your thinking and behaviour as well as your breathing and heart rate.

• For many people, drinking alcohol releases tension and reduces inhibition, making them feel more at ease and outgoing.

• Drinking can also make you feel ‘drunk’ or intoxicated. Signs of being drunk include flushed skin, impaired judgment, reduced inhibition, reduced muscle control, slowed reflexes, problems walking, slurred speech, and double or blurred vision.

• Signs of being heavily intoxicated include difficulty standing, throwing up, blacking out, and having no memory of what you said or did while drinking. Heavy drinking can lead to coma and death.

• Drinking can sometimes result in a ‘hangover’ about eight to ten hours after your last drink. Symptoms can include headache, nausea, diarrhea, dehydration, shakiness, and vomiting.

• It is possible to develop a physical dependence (addiction) on alcohol.

To find out more, please click to download the information sheet on women and alcohol!


Protecting Yourself Against Compassion Fatigue

An employee speaks to a fellow employee about her depression.

by  on February 26, 2018 in Workforce

Social workers work alongside people who have experienced abuse and trauma, and can easily be affected by it.

What is compassion fatigue?

In the opening pages of her book ‘Trauma Stewardship – An Everyday Guide to Caring for Self While Caring for Others’, Laura van Dernoot Lipsky describes a hike with her family. As they came to the top of a cliff, her first thought was to admire the spectacular beauty of the view. Her second thought, which she voiced to her stunned partner and children was: how many people have jumped to their death from this very spot? From this experience van Dernoot Lipsky began to examine the impact her daily exposure to the trauma of others had on her view of the world.

Perhaps the example she gives seems extreme, but consider the child protection social worker who, on seeing pictures of a friend’s baby celebrating his first birthday with a chocolate cake-covered face, first thinks “how sweet”, quickly followed by thoughts of baby Peter Connelly’s chocolate-covered face. Or the domestic violence worker who, when writing in a wedding card for her friend, considers slipping in a “where to get help if you are being hurt” card. Or the therapist who treats survivors of sexual abuse who won’t let her children stay overnight with friends or for school trips.

Working with abuse and trauma can have a profound impact on the worker as a person as a professional, as well as affecting the organisation and service users. Recognising and managing compassion fatigue is therefore key.

Professional reflection

Many social workers are passionate about the work they do and are dedicated to the children and families with whom they interact. It is vital that social workers do not lose sight of the positive aspects of their work, particularly as they are facing increased stress, trauma, and bureaucracy.

In addition to how an individual takes care of themselves outside of work, the way they think about their work can reduce the impact of compassion fatigue. The Huntington Institute (an organisation supporting humanitarian and disaster relief workers) refers to this as “working protectively”.

As part of working protectively, in professional reflection, social workers should consider the following:

  1. Why do you do this work? Has the reason changed from when you started? Have you lost your motivation for the work? Can you become re-inspired in your current role or is it time for you to move on?
  2. What aspects of your work give you the most pleasure, satisfaction, or sense of achievement? Are there ways for you to increase those areas?
  3. Do you know what you are doing in your work and why? (Do you see “the big picture” and your role in it for families, the organisation, and the larger community or do you feel you are working in isolation?)
  4. How do you measure success at work? Do you need to reconsider how you measure it? For example, in a homeless shelter one might consider having achieved success when a service user is adequately housed and financially stable. Whilst this might be the ultimate vision of success, is it a realistic one? One might reframe success to celebrate smaller achievements such as the client staying in the shelter for a week, having healthy meals and medical care as opposed to sleeping on the street. Reframing success into bite-sized chunks is more realistic for the worker and the service users and provides more opportunity for success.
  5. What aspects of your work can you control? (for example, timetables, varied work, etc). Do you have the opportunity to be creative and try new ideas? Determine what things are within your power to change and change them. Rethink how you can manage those things that cannot be changed.
  6. What are the personal costs (physical or mental health, relationships, etc) and rewards of doing this work? (How can you increase the rewards? Are the personal costs too great?)

Despite the challenges of social work, practitioners often say their career is extremely rewarding. Although social workers bear witness to pain and trauma, they also bear witness to resilience and healing and the potential for changed lives. Looking back over their careers, many social workers will be able to recall “success stories” where they feel they truly made a difference, where a child or family was given a new opportunity, where they experienced not the human capacity to hurt others, but the human capacity for love, kindness, happiness and growth.

It is those experiences that workers must keep in the forefront of their minds to help them remain passionate and protected in their work.

Retrieved from http://www.communitycare.co.uk/2018/02/26/protecting-compassion-fatigue-key-tips/

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The Global Toll of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

New CAMH study provides worldwide estimates of this preventable birth defect

January 12, 2017 (TORONTO) – Worldwide, an estimated 119,000 children are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) each year, a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) shows.

The study, published in The Lancet Global Health, provides the first-ever estimates of the proportion of women who drink during pregnancy, as well as estimates of FAS by country, World Health Organization (WHO) region and worldwide.

Globally, nearly 10 per cent of women drink alcohol during pregnancy, with wide variations by country and WHO region. In some countries, more than 45 per cent of women consume alcohol during pregnancy. In Canada, which has clinical guidelines advising abstinence during pregnancy, an estimated 10 per cent of pregnant women still drink, which is close to the estimated world average.

Map showing global alcohol use
Any alcohol use (per cent) during pregnancy among the general population, 2012*

Nearly 15 per 10,000 people around the world are estimated to have FAS, the most severe form of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). FAS is characterized by mental, behavioural and learning problems, as well as physical disabilities. In Canada, the estimate is 10.5 cases of FAS per 10,000 people.

Map showing FAS global distribution
Fetal alcohol syndrome (per 10,000 people) among the general population, 2012* 

Not every woman who drinks while pregnant will have a child with FAS. “We estimated that one in 67 mothers who drink during pregnancy will deliver a child with FAS,” says lead author Dr. Svetlana Popova, Senior Scientist in CAMH’s Institute for Mental Health Policy Research.

She notes that this figure is very conservative and does not include other types of FASD that may occur from alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including partial FAS (pFAS) and Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND).

Although it’s well established that alcohol can damage any organ or system in the developing fetus, particularly the brain, it’s still not known exactly what makes a fetus most susceptible, in terms of the amount or frequency of alcohol use, or timing of drinking during pregnancy. Other factors, such as the genetics, stress, smoking and nutrition also contribute to the risk of developing FASD.

“The safest thing to do is to completely abstain from alcohol during the entire pregnancy,” says Dr. Popova.

The study involved comprehensive literature reviews and statistical analyses to determine the estimates, which are intended to help countries plan public health initiatives and policies, such as FAS surveillance systems and educational efforts on the risks of alcohol use during pregnancy, the researchers note.

The five countries with the highest alcohol use in pregnancy were in Europe: Russia, United Kingdom, Denmark, Belarus and Ireland. As a region, Europe also had a 2.6 higher prevalence of FAS than the global average.  The lowest levels of drinking and FAS were found for the Eastern Mediterranean and South East Asia regions, as there are high rates of alcohol abstinence in these regions.

The predictive model that the research team developed in this study could also be used to estimate the prevalence of other disease conditions, notes Dr. Popova. Her team is currently extending this work to study the global scale of all fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). An earlier study by Dr. Popova and her team, published in The Lancet last year, showed that more than 400 disease conditions co-occur with FASD.

* Maps reprinted from The Lancet, Popova et al, Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis, ©2017, with permission from Elsevier​​

Retrieved from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Link

Building the Right Mobile APP for Caregivers of Children with FASD


Mt. Hope Family Center research associate Christie Petrenko, left, and electrical and computer engineering research associate Cristiano Tapparello have won a $1.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to support their work to develop a mobile app to provide health information for self-directed and peer-to-peer interventions for parents and caregivers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorder. (University of Rochester photo / J. Adam Fenster)

After years of working with patients and researching fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), Christie Petrenko, a research associate at the University’s Mt. Hope Family Center, knew a mobile app might be just the tool she was missing in order to help families and caregivers of children with FASD. She wasn’t sure who might have the right technical expertise but knew fellow psychology researchers had forged connections with colleagues at the Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Soon, she was introduced to Cristiano Tapparello, a research associate in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. A team was born.

This past summer the newly-formed team were awarded a $1.5 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop an app that provides health information for self-directed and peer-to-peer interventions for parents and caregivers of children with FASD. The mobile health intervention will provide scientific, evidence-based content and peer-moderated support that’s easily accessible.

Earlier this month, the duo conducted initial focus group meetings with caregivers to show off their first prototypes and get input from those the app is designed to serve. Top of the list for parents: confidentiality, community, the ability to personalize information to their child, and, of course, ease of use.

Among other things, parents agreed with the researchers’ idea that the app should contain a caregiver forum to exchange ideas and local resources. The forum needs to feel safe and be moderated so that people can’t make inappropriate comments, they told the researchers. Also, focus group participants said they didn’t want to engage in endless scrolling on their screens to find the pertinent content.

To Petrenko and Tapparello this is vital feedback. Tapparello, who often uses his wife as a sounding board for his prototype apps, especially liked the parents’ feedback: “Getting a sense of how everything that I’m presenting with the design is perceived by different people is really helpful.”

The app is currently called “FMF Connect.” Its name is derived from the Families Moving Forward (FMF) Program, which was designed specially for children with FASD by co-investigator Heather Carmichael Olson, a clinical professor at the University of Washington and Seattle Childrens Research Institute. 

Petrenko, a recognized expert in the field, has conducted multiple studies that have resulted in a program of interventions for parents and other caregivers of children with the disorder. The multidisciplinary team now hopes the app will help reduce caregivers’ feelings of isolation while providing reliable, evidence-based health information.

“Many families have little to no access to the kinds of information and parenting strategies that are most helpful in managing the behavior of children with FASD,” she says. “They need support from others who understand their experiences.”

The building of the app is a constant back-and-forth process, says Tapparello. Trained as a computer engineer with a much more theoretical focus, app building was not originally part of Tapparello’s professional repertoire. Sometimes he tinkered with apps for his own phone. What started as a hobby slowly began to seep into his professional life. After successfully writing apps to help parents manage their child’s asthma, and to improve medication compliance in oncology patients, he says it’s “fun to try to fulfill what other people find useful.”

At this point, the core content is written and basic design structures are in place, confirms Petrenko. More focus groups throughout the US are planned—in Rochester, Washington D.C., Atlanta, Minneapolis and San Diego—to elicit a wide range of perspectives and feedback.

The team is devoting a lot of time to building an interface that looks good and feels intuitive to the user. That’s why they aren’t rushing things. The first two years are earmarked for systematic development to “build a really nice prototype that’s thoughtful, easy to use, and hits just the right mark,” says Petrenko. The app will have learning modules, a library of resources and articles, a peer-moderated family forum, a notebook function for saving comments and ideas, and a dashboard that shows progress through the various learning modules. The researchers are also considering adding a medication tracker function after parents in the focus groups specifically asked for it.

“Having easy access to peers who really understand both the joys and challenges of raising children with FASD can help reduce feelings of isolation and increase support,” says Petrenko. “Caregivers can brainstorm together and reinforce educational content on the app to help each other come up with strategies to try to manage specific behaviors displayed by their children.”

Awarded over five years, the grant includes a subcontract with Seattle Children’s Research Institute. The first two years will be spent focusing on the app development. Year three is earmarked for a feasibility trial with 30 families, and years four and five are scheduled for a large-scale test with 120 families in a randomized controlled trial.

Co-investigators include Wendi Heinzelman, dean of the Hajim School of Engineering & Applied Sciences; Zhiyao Duan, assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Elizabeth Handley, research associate at Mt. Hope Family Center; Rebecca Van Dyke, a master’s student in computer engineering; project coordinator Jennifer Parr, a master’s student in mental health counseling at the Warner School of Education, and Heather Carmichael Olson with the Seattle Children’s Research Institute and the University of Washington.

Those interested in participating in FASD research trials can join a registry through CIFASD at www.nofas.org/cifasd/.

Retrieved from http://www.rochester.edu/newscenter/building-right-mobile-app-caregivers-children-fasd-294102/